How does the bonus work in an ICO?Is the bonus given from the total supply or new tokens are created to compensate for the bonuses such as ICO's give bonuses anywhere from 40-5%. How does it all addup

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You simply divide the amount of funds raised by the total number of tokens...
If 40% bonus is of first week , how to calculate it? Same way — after ICO completion and final token distribution you just increase the amount of tokens for everyone who is eligible to earn a bonus.
Bonuses in ICOs are usually given for:
A) Early adopters, meaning you get a discount/ bonus of let's say 20% on day 1; or 20% more tokens on day 1; and so on.
B) Based on the amount of the contribution, the higher the investment, the larger the discount/ bonus, meaning "Get a 10% bonus if you invest 10 ETH or more"
The first one I would consider more fair for people in the community that might be interested in the project at an very early stage but may not have 10 ETH to invest.
Here you could see bonuses of recent ICOs like Stratis, Waves, etc: